The Architecture Of Ancient Egypt
Most common in the New Kingdom period received the type of rectangular temple with a clear plan. The facade of the temple addressed to the Nile, from which there was a road, framed on the sides of stone sphinxes, or sacred rams (rams). Avenue of sphinxes led to the entrance — a stone pylon — Grand, tapering upwards in the form of a trapezoid wall, separated by a narrow passage in the middle. In front of the pylon were erected colossal statues, obelisks. Behind the pylon was opened rectangular open courtyard surrounded by columns. In the center of the courtyard on the main axis also laid the stone colonnade. She was scheduled straight line path to the columned halls, chapels, storerooms and other spaces. Monumental reliefs covered the walls of the temples. Powerful colonnade, numerous sculptures complement their solemn appearance.
Surviving colonnades and temples of the ancient capital preserved to our days majestic spirit of architecture of this period.
Decorating them with statues, why for centuries the complexes of Karnak and Luxor turned into a kind of stone town with alleys and squares, colonnades and temples. Powerful pillars had capitals (the decorative end) and was like giant Lotus flowers and papyrus, as if reproducing the fantastic stone forest. And at the same time, the Egyptian temples of the New Kingdom with its warm Golden tone, delicate colors of the paintings, createrelation did not feel oppressive power of the stone.
The diversity of reliefs and paintings, many of which are saturated during this period dynamics. Rushing chariots, thin-legged deer, running in a panic fleeing from hunters, smashing arrows, slender horses, a flying gallop, replacing the former solemn, silent procession. The reliefs on the walls tell travel, foreign ambassadors, on boats, in swimming quite catch.
The architecture of the late Kingdom of Egypt and illinoisrago
Greek colonization of the Nile Delta, the Persian invasion and the troops of Alexander the great contribute to a more intensive cultural communication of the Mediterranean countries. This affects the architecture of Egypt.
The last flowering of Egyptian art in the period of unification of the country under the rule of the saite pharaohs (7th century BC) is characterized by the appearance of a cold, elegant style. The painting is replete with bright colors. Bronze statues, covered with stamped designs and inlaid with gold, elegant, but lack the internal heat of the Amarna portraits. However, in this period, the art has not exhausted itself completely. The conquest of Alexander the great in 332 BCE ushered in the Hellenistic period a new.
Masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art were building the pyramids. They stagger the imagination with its size, geometric precision, and the amount of labor expended in their construction. A particularly strong impression they had to perform immediately after, when their carefully polished surface sparkled dazzlingly in the rays of the southern sun.
The greatest and most astonishing construction of this kind of part of the famous ensemble of the pyramids of Giza. This is the pyramid of Pharaoh Cheops. Its height is 146 metres and it is free to accommodate, for example, St. Isaac’s Cathedral. In fact, the pyramid consists entirely of stone, inside it is only a small burial chamber and leading to the corridors that after the burial of the king were filled in. However, this did not prevent the robbers to find your way to the pyramid hidden in the treasure; not accidentally, later on the construction of the pyramids was abandoned. Now the tombs were cut in the rocks, and the entrances elaborately concealed. By incredible coincidence, was opened in 1922, one such tomb, where buried died young Pharaoh Tutankhamen.
Egyptian craftsmen created many beautiful, simple and majestic sculptures, nothing like that knew none of the later eras. Sculptures made of painted wood or polished stone features a special dignity. Pharaohs were usually depicted in the same posture, often standing with arms stretched along the body, and with exposed left leg forward. Despite the idealization, the portraits right handed unique traits of the person. In the images of ordinary people had more life and movement than in the solemn statues of the rulers.
The walls and pillars of the Egyptian buildings were decorated with reliefs and paintings that are easily recognizable by peculiar methods.
Thanks to the beliefs and the strict rules of ancient Egyptian art has existed almost unchanged for about two and a half millennia. In the later period it was exposed to art of other peoples, especially the Greeks, and in the beginning of our era finally faded away.
Artistic comprehension of structures of mud brick, mastering the art of stone processing have become the basis on which was formed the monumental imagery of architecture slavery of Egypt.
The movement of the economic centers in the Northern Mediterranean, the emergence of new States with more progressive forms of socio – economic organization to undermine the conservative principles of the slavery of Egypt.
The architecture of Ancient Egypt is most fully reflected his time and gave her the social order, but to achieve it, the overwhelming monumentality and grandeur of the works have not received a direct continuation in the architecture of other Nations.
However, various types of architectural buildings (Church halls, peristyle), the skill composition of complex temple complexes, the ability of harmonious integration of architecture into the natural surroundings, experience the stylization of flora and fauna in rich reliefs and painting, as well as in many different types of columns anticipated many developments of the world of architecture, although in other forms and proportions.
Architecture was the organizing environment, where problems have been solved synthesis construction technique, mastery of spatial composition, painting and sculpture.
Role models exceptional originality and brightness to the art of Ancient Egypt, whetted his symbolism often rolled wave on the history of human culture.