Architectural styles. Gothic style
he Gothic style originated in the mid-twelfth century in France, so his contemporaries called him French. The name “Gothic,” the style received only three centuries later. So its dubbed Italian architects, which he seemed rough compared to the Roman architecture. The word “Gothic” in Italian language means “cruel, brutal”.
This style replaced the Romanesque style, and its main difference from the latter are exaltation and increased interest in the feelings. In the history of art highlight the Gothic of the early (blooming) (1140-1230 years), Mature, high (radiant) (1230-1350 years) and late (flamboyant) (second half of the fourteenth century-first half of 16th century). The first Gothic architectural structure is the Church of the monastery of Saint-Denis, 1135-1144 created in years by the Abbot Suger.
A common feature of the Gothic structures is the tendency of the entire structure up. Replaced the Romanesque arch with heavy slabs comes in a lighter frame of Gothic arch, which rests on the ribs that distribute the load on the pillars and columns. New Gothic shaped support pole or “beam” of six or more columns have not only contributed to the reduction of narezkina walls and floors relief, but also allows you to increase the internal volume of the structure. Enlarged Windows, decorated with beautiful stained glass Windows, made facilities more light and airy. The building, built in the Gothic style, symbolized the rush to the sky, also served this purpose all the wealth of their decoration − reliefs, stained glass, statues. Marvelous stone finish finials plants, winery, buttresses, their edges covered with unseen leaves-crabby. In a variety of themes of the stained glass Windows are dominated by blue, red and yellow colors. Ossification of the Romanesque statues were replaced by the mobility of the Gothic sculpture, their appeal to each other and to the viewer. Sculpture in the Gothic churches call the sermon in stone.
Originating in France, the Gothic style in the thirteenth century spread to Germany, Czech Republic, England, Spain, and later with great difficulty and a strong transformation in Italy. The Gothic architecture of France include Notre Dame Cathedral, Reims Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral, the cloisters at the monastery of Mont Saint-Michel. In England this style is built cathedrals at Canterbury, Salisbury, Exeter, Lincoln, Gloucester and in Westminster Abbey. One of the masterpieces of Gothic architecture in Germany are the Cologne Cathedral and münster Cathedral in Ulm. Gothic monuments in the Czech Republic are St. Vitus Cathedral and Charles bridge in Prague, halls the temples of South Bohemia, hall-Church of St. Barbara in the coot-on-the Mountain.
With all the variety of structures in this style combines the verticality of all structural elements, huge Windows, colorful stained glass Windows and lighting effects.
In the early sixteenth century Gothic architecture gave way to the architecture of the Renaissance period.