Gothic ornament in architecture
Gothic ornament was diverse and symbolic. Continue to use the converted ancient and Byzantine motifs, but along with them are biased towards new themes.
Straightforward geometric shapes moving in a curvilinear weave. In addition to geometric ornamental constructions and reproduce the shape of Lancet arches, spherical triangles and quadrilaterals widely used plant forms of the local flora that is characteristic ornamentation of the era – grape leaves, thistles, oak, ivy, clover, roses, etc. Widespread motif of the trefoil and dvuletnee. Later forms of thorns – bramble, Thistle, fern, etc.
The art of Gothic architecture was developed in synthesis with sculpture. The sculptural decoration of stylized motifs of acanthus and palmettes replaced all other vegetable forms. From the buds of the shoots early Gothic decorated floral motifs turned into a blossoming raspustitsya foliage ornament in the XIII century and is lush with flowers and fruit in the XIV century.
The idea of using real flora motifs in the Gothic decor becomes a sort of Canon.
In early Gothic period floral ornament was an excellent decorationmaterial timpanis, where he portrayed the trees with leaves decorated in the form of garlands (the Cathedral in Magdeburg, Germany, thirteenth century); used combination of figures and vegetal elements (the baptistery in Pisa), In which acanthus leaves interspersed with scenes of agricultural work. The influence of antiquity is felt in the use of the motif of the acanthus, and in the depiction of fantastic creatures – centaurs, borrowed from Greco-Roman pagan mythology.
Actually medieval is such elemnet architecture, as the locks of vaults and drains – Guruji. The subject of jewelry locks is extremely diverse. Here you can see a human head, individual figures, scenes from the Bible, historical figures, a centaur and a siren; they also ukrashayut grape leaves, leaves and flowers roses, leaves persons like human persons, turning into leaves, and leaves. passing in the face, from the album of Villars de Oncura. Drains that make up one of arcteryx elements of a Gothic Church, executed in the form of monsters with gaping animal mouth, in the form of a human. gargage the Cathedral of our lady Pariisi depict winged animals.
A special place in Gothic architecture was designated an openwork ornament, executed in stone. The compass displayed all lines are directed upwards Lancet arches, lobed Windows, four-bladed outlets, and a magnificent round stained-glass Windows of glogovica called “roses”. Perhaps that is why in Germany the Gothic thread was called “Mastercam”, i.e. the work done to the size.
In the thirteenth century a new ornament was only an architectural element. At the end of the century it appears in tserkovnoi silver utensils and begins to gradually penetrate into other genres of applied art.
In the XV century the elements of architecture were used for decorative purposes, and Gothic ornament predominated in all the applied arts. Not only decor, but also architectural forms are transformed into ornamental motifs.
The floors in the Gothic epoch were paved with ceramic tiles, which were frequently decorated with ornament. Typically, the tiles made a square, sometimes rectangular or hexagonal shape. The ornament was made by a combination of lines of the pattern of individual tiles. Tiles often were lined with ribbons on the type of laying of the parquet, in the more important areas of the Church used a more sophisticated configuration. In French ecclesiastical architecture uslubini the floor decor was so-called maze, in which the parishioners were moved on his knees, praying. This ritual imitated the pilgrimage, which is not always possible to implement because of separation from the Holy places. The most famous circular labyrinth at Chartres and Amiens cathedrals. Sometimes, instead of a complicated labyrinth laid out simple form of a rose.
For decoration of tiles were used a variety of motifs: geometric, vegetal, zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, etc. The most common combination of palmitic and vegetative shoots, as well as one of the common varieties of Gothic ornament – Lily on tall stem shown or as individual flower, or in the form of four bound together.
The pattern on the tile is most often applied to red and yellow, occasionally black was used. A limited number of colors were enhanced decorative effect.
The pottery vessels were painted with crosses, decorated with engraved pattern or embossed heraldic ornament. Most of the products were covered with sonorous green frosting.
In the ornamentation of furniture are often used plexus slim, resembling a rib vaults combined with leaf ornament. Typical furniture of the late fifteenth century ornament “linen folds”. Furniture is also reproduced from wood sculpted stone frieze in the form of a tightly woven, twisted twigs and leaves.