Ancient Egypt, marked the beginning of architecture, was a country without scaffolding. The tree was also small, as in other oases of the African deserts, the vegetation — palm trees, giving a tree of poor quality, and cane. All this was largely determined by the fact that the main building materials were sun-dried Adobe brick and stone, mainly limestone in the Nile valley, as well as Sandstone and granite. The stone was used mainly for tombs and graves, while the bricks went to building palaces, fortresses, buildings in the vicinity of temples and cities, as well as auxiliary structures for temples. Ancient Egyptian houses were built of mud in the Nile. It was left in the sun to dry out and become suitable for construction. Many Egyptian cities have not survived to our days, as located in the zone of flooding of the Nile, the level of which was rising every Millennium, in the end, many towns were flooded, or dirt, used for construction, became fertilizer for the peasant fields. Continue reading
Gothic ornament was diverse and symbolic. Continue to use the converted ancient and Byzantine motifs, but along with them are biased towards new themes.
Straightforward geometric shapes moving in a curvilinear weave. In addition to geometric ornamental constructions and reproduce the shape of Lancet arches, spherical triangles and quadrilaterals widely used plant forms of the local flora that is characteristic ornamentation of the era – grape leaves, thistles, oak, ivy, clover, roses, etc. Widespread motif of the trefoil and dvuletnee. Later forms of thorns – bramble, Thistle, fern, etc.
The art of Gothic architecture was developed in synthesis with sculpture. The sculptural decoration of stylized motifs of acanthus and palmettes replaced all other vegetable forms. From the buds of the shoots early Gothic decorated floral motifs turned into a blossoming raspustitsya foliage ornament in the XIII century and is lush with flowers and fruit in the XIV century. Continue reading
Georgia, Tbilisi, fortress of the XVII century
A contemporary of Tbilisi, Narikala fortress, the townspeople affectionately call the “soul of the city”. It is located on mount Mtatsminda and is essentially fragments of fortifications of different epochs.
Myths and facts
According to the Chronicles, a powerful fortress founded in the IV century. Then it was called Surich-tsikhe (“Fortress of envy”). During the Mongol invasion of the XIII century in the citadel “managed” by the Mongols, who named her in his own way – the Naryn-Kala (“Small fortress”).
In VIII-XII centuries the consolidation grew and expanded together with the city: thanks to its fortified walls stretching up to the river Kur, the hosts controlled the water trade route. The builders cared about the good water: there were various aqueducts and channels, as well as the secret exits to the river. It is believed that the water Narikala – the oldest in Georgia.
At all times, an impregnable fortress properly perform its defensive function. Continue reading