Cathedrals and castles: building in Moscow Gothic
It seems that Moscow is very far from the European middle ages a mysterious, isn’t it? But actually, the Gothic period in the development of medieval art of the XII-XVI centuries did not escape the influence of the Russian capital. It was reflected in a number of buildings that Muscovites and visitors can admire to this day.
Russian masterpieces of Gothic architecture, the architects were inspired by European masterpieces, among which the most prominent, perhaps, be called the Gothic cathedrals. One of the most famous Gothic cathedrals – Chartres Cathedral in France, a UNESCO world heritage site. The Majesty of the Gothic cathedrals give their impressive size and height. With all the details of the temple is chosen so that it seemed that the building “stretches” in the sky. And Gothic covers, in addition to architecture, sculpture, painting, so the Gothic cathedrals, richly decorated with sculptures, carvings and colourful stained glass Windows.
Perhaps the first building that comes to mind at the mention of Gothic architecture in Moscow is the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the blessed virgin Mary on Malaya Gruzinskaya St., 27/13. The largest Catholic Cathedral in Russia last year celebrated its century anniversary.
The project of the temple razrabotannyi Moscow architect, the pole by origin, Tomas (Thomas) I. Bogdanovich Dvorzhetsky, which at its creation was inspired by two famous works of Gothic architecture – cathedrals in Milan and in Westminster Abbey. Guess the Gothic style in the architecture of this building at first sight – its enormous size, reaching the sky, the rich decoration, many large and small towers, spires, and Windows in the form of a Lancet arch, stained glass Windows, the rose window of the (large circular tracery window) above the main entrance.
The building was built by all the rules of a Gothic Cathedral – the main nave (the long room of the temple) intersects with a side nave, so that if you look at the building from above, it has the shape of a cross. On the spire of the Central pinnacles of the Cathedral there is a cross on the spires and pinnacles of the side — arms of Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz.
Above the portal (main entrance) of the temple four letters – VMIC, that is, Virgo Maria Immaculate Conception, which means virgin Mary immaculately conceived.
The only Anglican Church in Moscow – St. Andrew’s Church (Voznesensky pereulok, 8) – was built in the late nineteenth century by the English architect Richard Neal Freeman.
The style of the Church is Victorian Gothic, which combines the characteristic of British architecture of the second half of the nineteenth century Victorian style with Gothic elements.
Single-aisled Basilica (a rectangular structure, consisting of an odd number of different height naves) was built of red brick. It is adjacent to a tower in the traditional Gothic style with Lancet Windows, stepped buttresses (the pillar to the wall of the building, reinforcing the main bearing structure) and four turrets.
As in the nineteenth century in the British community in Moscow was dominated by the Scots, the Church received the name of St. Andrew – the patron Saint of Scotland. No wonder two figures of angels at the entrance to the Church holding one of the symbols of this country – the Thistle flower. Once Lancet Windows of the Church were decorated with stained glass Windows, but they were lost along with the organ, altar and old pews.
Building Houses the Moscow Polytechnic society in Maly kharitonievsky lane, 4, began in 1905. As said by the author of the project of the architect Alexander Kuznetsov, the building embodies architectural motifs of England – “the country that gave us the first steam engine, the locomotive, the steamship, and the loom”.
The building is divided into two parts – the lower floors are intended for offices, meeting rooms, library and dining area, while the upper three floors housed apartments for rent.
The facade is also divided below the massive granite rust (the walls of the houses are covered with material simulating the rough rough natural stone) and the upper part of the structure goes up due to the elegant elongated Windows and Bay Windows, which are finished with top turrets and attics.
Pharmacy Ferrana on Nikolskaya street, on 21, perhaps the most famous pharmacy in Moscow. Familiar to Muscovites view pharmacy acquired after the restructuring in the late nineteenth century. According to some sources, the project belonged to the architect A. E. Erichson, on the other – I. Shaposhnikova.
Thus the Gothic has the facade of the building, which overlooks the yard, but some elements are already lost – “knight’s castle” of red brick, with battlements, turrets, Lancet Windows, lost mounted on a large turret, which rises above the building, and watch the tent.
Some Gothic elements can be seen in the apartment house of I. P. Severskogo in Potapovsky lane, 12. The building was built in 1912-1913 by the architect I. G. Kondratenko with S. A. Doroshenko. Bay Windows with narrow Windows, ending at the top of the towers, making the building less heavy.
The famous building of the TSUM in Moscow also has some of the details of the Gothic style of architecture. Two Scottish merchant Archibald merilis and Andrew Muir purchase the building on the site of the present Central Department store in Theatre square in the late nineteenth century and opened a General store. However, in 1900, the store burned down. The draft of the new seven-story building was designed by architect Roman Klein. He combined the Gothic with elements of art Nouveau. The roof of the building decorated with turrets, and from the street on the corner of the store is the massive “tower” in multiple Windows. Light metal frame casements in the Windows of the building resemble the tracery Windows of the Gothic cathedrals.