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Old city cemetery since 1790, is located on the outskirts of the city on the banks of the Ingul river and consists of several parts. The largest part of Orthodox…

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The first group: - the Cathedral Notre-Dame of Chartres has preserved the heavy Romanesque wall dominated in her division of the horizontal semicircular Romanesque silhouette of arcades and window openings.…

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Characteristic of the architecture of Ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt, marked the beginning of architecture, was a country without scaffolding. The tree was also small, as in other oases of the African deserts, the vegetation — palm trees, giving a tree of poor quality, and cane. All this was largely determined by the fact that the main building materials were sun-dried Adobe brick and stone, mainly limestone in the Nile valley, as well as Sandstone and granite. The stone was used mainly for tombs and graves, while the bricks went to building palaces, fortresses, buildings in the vicinity of temples and cities, as well as auxiliary structures for temples. Ancient Egyptian houses were built of mud in the Nile. It was left in the sun to dry out and become suitable for construction. Many Egyptian cities have not survived to our days, as located in the zone of flooding of the Nile, the level of which was rising every Millennium, in the end, many towns were flooded, or dirt, used for construction, became fertilizer for the peasant fields.

New cities were built on the site of the old, so ancient settlements and was not saved. However, the arid climate of Ancient Egypt preserved some buildings from bricks are the village of Deir El-Medina, the Kahuna, the city reached the peak in the middle Kingdom (modern El-Lahun ), fortifications vbuhanie and Mirgissa. But the fact that many temples and buildings were preserved to our days, due to the fact that they were beyond the Nile spills height and were built of stone. A basic understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based on the study of religious monuments, structures the best preserved. Judging by some of the surviving columns of the temple at Karnak Egyptians before laying the stone tipped clean only bed and vertical joints; facial surface of the stones will find their feet among at the end of the building. This technique was used by later Greeks. The stones were laid without mortar and without any artificial linkages. In Theban era metal bonding, apparently, it is not used, and only occasionally used wooden brackets in the form of a dovetail for connection stones (Medinet-Habu, Abydos), or to bond, and gave the crack of monoliths (Luxor obelisk). External and internal walls and columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carved figures, painted in different colors. The motifs of the decorations of the Egyptian symbolic buildings, such as the scarab, sacred beetle, or the sun disc, symbolizing the sun God RA. And often palm leaves, thickets of papyrus and Lotus flowers. Hieroglyphs were used not only for decorative purposes but also to keep historical events, wars, gods that were worshipped, the life of the ancient Egyptians, the life and death of pharaohs who ruled ancient government.

2.2 Architecture of the old Kingdom

Approximately in XXX century BC Pharaoh of the I dynasty Namerom, or Menes, were United into one state North and South Egypt with capital at Memphis. The creation of a powerful centralized state under the rule of Pharaoh, who was considered the son of the God RA, and dictated the main type of architectural structures — the tomb, external means of transmitting the idea of his divinity. Highest elevation reaches Egypt, when the rulers of the III and IV dynasties. It generates the large size of the Royal tombs-pyramids, structures which over the decades, worked not only slaves, but also peasants. This historical period is often called the “time pyramids”, and its legendary monuments would not have been created without the brilliant development in Egypt of the exact Sciences and crafts. One of the earliest monuments of monumental stone architecture is the ensemble of the burial structures of the III dynasty Pharaoh Djoser. It was erected under the direction of the Egyptian architect Imhotep and reflect the intent of Pharaoh himself (however, this plan was several times changed). Abandoning the traditional forms of mastaba, Imhotep stopped at the pyramid with a rectangular base consisting of six steps. The entrance was on the North side; under the base were carved the underground passages and mine at the bottom of which was located the burial chamber. In the funeral complex of Djoser also included the southern tomb is a Cenotaph with an adjoining chapel and a courtyard for the ceremony Cheb-ETS (ritual of rebirth of the life force of the Pharaoh in running).

The step pyramid was built by other pharaohs of the third dynasty (pyramids in Dahshur and Meduma); one of them has diamond-shaped contours.

the pyramids at Giza

The perfect expression of the idea of tomb-pyramids found in the tombs built at Giza for pharaohs of the fourth dynasty of Cheops(Khufu), Chephren ( khafra), and mycerinus (menkaura), which in antiquity was considered one of the wonders of the world. The biggest one was created by architect Hamina for the Pharaoh Cheops. Each time the pyramid was built a temple, the entrance to which was on the banks of the Nile and was connected to the Church long covered corridor. Around the pyramids with rows of raspolagayuschaya. The menkaure pyramid was left unfinished and completed by the son of the Pharaoh of stone blocks and brick.

In the burial ensembles of V-VI dynasties the main role goes to the temples that are finished with more of a luxury.

By the end of the period of the old Kingdom there is a new type of building —solar temple. It was built on a hill and surrounded by a wall. In the centre of a spacious courtyard with a Shrine put a colossal stone obelisk with gilt brass tip and a huge altar at the foot. The obelisk symbolized the sacred stone Ben-Ben, which according to legend the sun was born from the abyss. Like the pyramids, the solar temple was connected by covered walkways with a gate in the valley. Among the most famous sun temples belongs to Niuserre temple in Abydos

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