Ancient Egypt, marked the beginning of architecture, was a country without scaffolding. The tree was also small, as in other oases of the African deserts, the vegetation — palm trees, giving a tree of poor quality, and cane. All this was largely determined by the fact that the main building materials were sun-dried Adobe brick and stone, mainly limestone in the Nile valley, as well as Sandstone and granite. The stone was used mainly for tombs and graves, while the bricks went to building palaces, fortresses, buildings in the vicinity of temples and cities, as well as auxiliary structures for temples. Ancient Egyptian houses were built of mud in the Nile. It was left in the sun to dry out and become suitable for construction. Many Egyptian cities have not survived to our days, as located in the zone of flooding of the Nile, the level of which was rising every Millennium, in the end, many towns were flooded, or dirt, used for construction, became fertilizer for the peasant fields. Continue reading
Thus, the most famous monument of ancient Greek architecture is the Parthenon temple, which has become a recognized international symbol of Greece. This ancient temple complex was erected in Athens in 437 BC in honor of Athena Parthenos the patron of this city. Construction works were supervised by famous Greek architects and Iktin Callicrate.
They built the Parthenon made of marble blocks, in the Doric style, as painters use. Its frieze is decorated with bas-relief ribbon, and pediments – a magnificent sculptural composition. In its Central room, surrounded by a majestic colonnade, formerly stood a statue of the goddess Athena made of ivory and pure gold, the famous painter and architect of Ancient Greece by Phidias. Unfortunately, the statue has not survived. Continue reading
Peterhof, Alexandria Park, the Church of Alexander Nevsky
Gothic chapel-This Church was built in 1830-34, by the famous German architect-F. Schinkel. The Church has the form of a medieval chapel. On the corners are cast-iron pyramidal tower, crowned with spires with crosses. On three sides there are two granite porches and external walls sculptures of saints, made by model V. Demut-Malinovsky. In the Lancet Windows of the Church inserted the colored glass, making it, as in all Gothic churches, semidarkness reigns. Interior painting of the Church was made by the artist A. Nave.
The Church of St. Alexander Nevsky. Interior painting of the Church
Chesme Church (1777-80) — a peculiar example of the era of Catherine the conditional imitation of Gothic. Continue reading